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medievalistsnet:

One of the most interesting episodes in Byzantine military history and in medieval English history is the Anglo-Saxon participation and service in the Varangian Guards regiment from the late 11th to the early 13th century. In the 11th century, as a result of crises suffered by the Byzantine state (feudalization of the armed forces, civil-military conflict in the government, the loss of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks, the loss of Southern Italy to the Normans, etc.) the Byzantine army became increasingly dependent upon mercenary forces.

Read more here: http://deremilitari.org/2014/06/english-refugees-in-the-byzantine-armed-forces-the-varangian-guard-and-anglo-saxon-ethnic-consciousness/

titibaka:

Just finished this customized pendant, a Hulinhjálmur (helm of disguise) symbol.
If you want it to actually work follow these instructions:

Paint the sign of #Hulinhjálmur on a piece of lignite. But you have to use a special kind of ink, prepared in the following way:
“Collect three drops of blood from the index finger of your left hand, three from the ring finger of your right hand, two from your right nipple and one from your left nipple. Mix the blood with six drops of blood from the heart of a living raven and melt it all with the raven’s brain and pieces of a human stomach. Carve the sign on the lignite with magnetic steel which has been hardened three times in human blood.”
#galdr #Iceland #magick #Asatru #NorseMythology #titibaka

I’ve got everything except the raven blood and the blood hardened steel. Believe it or not i do have the raven brains. Here’s to hoping the instructions are metaphorical. I’ve been thinking that nipple blood could be a poor kenning for milk, and raven blood a kenning for thought, but i somehow doubt it.

solitaryorgan:


Bronze statuette possibly of the Roman fertility god Priapus, made in two parts (shown here in assembled and disassembled forms). This statuette has been dated to the late 1st century C.E. It was found in Rivery, in Picardy, France in 1771 and is the oldest Gallo-Roman object in the collection of the Museum of Picardy. This figurine represents the deity clothed in a “cuculus”, a Gallic coat with hood, and may be an example of the Genii cucullati. This upper section is detachable and conceals a phallus.

More on this here.
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solitaryorgan:

Bronze statuette possibly of the Roman fertility god Priapus, made in two parts (shown here in assembled and disassembled forms). This statuette has been dated to the late 1st century C.E. It was found in Rivery, in Picardy, France in 1771 and is the oldest Gallo-Roman object in the collection of the Museum of Picardy. This figurine represents the deity clothed in a “cuculus”, a Gallic coat with hood, and may be an example of the Genii cucullati. This upper section is detachable and conceals a phallus.

More on this here.

I either just lost a folkish follower, or (conversely) someone squeamish about swastikas, and i know i have quite a few, so i feel compelled to make a brief statement. Good riddance, if you are such a chicken headed fuck that you can’t abide challenge, or in the other case sacred symbols, then you are useless. The end of the great work necessitates the abolishment of nationalistic, racist, and ego-centric identity; not from society, but from the individual, who is not a being of flesh and bone. If you can’t cope with other races, other sexual preferences, other symbols, geographies, or other paradigms in general, then you are entirely unequipped to pursue sacred experiences; many of which involve entire other states of consciousness. I have been relatively quiet about heathen racism because i don’t believe it is my job to attack people for their ideologies, no matter how harmful they may be. It IS my job to write and speak in such a way as to win the minds of people towards tolerance, understanding, and appreciation for the world beyond the narrow margins people create.

cconcrete-cloudss asked:

hahahah you're dumber than I thought, the swastika is a symbol for "it is good" and it's in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism. Until Nazi's it had no dark meanings behind it. They defiled a religious symbol.

nationalistnotebook:

armedrebellion:

someofmybestfriendsarewhite:

Europe

Swastika on a Greek silver stater coin from Corinth, 6th century BC.

In Bronze Age Europe, the “Sun cross" (a three- or four-armed hooked cross in a circle) appears frequently, often interpreted as a solar symbol. Swastika shapes have been found on numerous artifacts from Iron Age Europe (Armenian Arevakhach), Greco-Roman, Illyrian, Etruscan, Baltic, Celtic, Germanic, Slavic and Georgian Borjgali. This prehistoric use seems to be reflected in the appearance of the symbol in various folk cultures of Europe, notable the Vinča.

Bronze Age Mycenaean “doll” with human, solar and tetragammadion (swastika) symbols. Louvre Museum
Greek helmet with swastika marks on the top part (circled), 350-325 BC from Taranto, found at Herculanum. Cabinet des Médailles, Paris.
Two sauwastikas (opposite-facing swastikas) on an ancient Greek Kantharos, Attica, ca. 780 BC.
Etruscan pendant with swastika symbols, Bolsena, Italy, 700-650 BC. Louvre Museum

Greco-Roman antiquity

Ancient Greek architectural, clothing and coin designs are replete with single or interlinking swastika motifs. There are also found gold plate fibulae from the 8th century BC decorated with an engraved swastika.[33] Related symbols in classical Western architecture include the cross, the three-legged triskele or triskelion and the rounded lauburu. The swastika symbol is also known in these contexts by a number of names, especially gammadion,[34] or rather the tetra-gammadion. The name gammadion comes from the fact that it can be seen as being made up of four Greek gamma (Γ) letters. Ancient Greek priestesses would tattoo the symbol, along with the tetraskelion, on their bodies. Ancient Greek architectural designs are replete with the interlinking symbol.

In alchemy, the gammadion was used to symbolise the four cardinal corners of the world and the guardianship of this world.

In Greco-Roman art and architecture, and in Romanesque and Gothic art in the West, isolated swastikas are relatively rare, and the swastika is more commonly found as a repeated element in a border or tessellation. The swastika often represented perpetual motion, reflecting the design of a rotating windmill or watermill. A meander of connected swastikas makes up the large band that surrounds the Augustan Ara Pacis. A design of interlocking swastikas is one of several tessellations on the floor of the cathedral of Amiens, France.[35] A border of linked swastikas was a common Roman architectural motif,[36] and can be seen in more recent buildings as a neoclassical element. A swastika border is one form of meander, and the individual swastikas in such a border are sometimes called Greek keys. There have also been swastikas found on the floors of Pompeii.[37]

Celts

The bronze frontspiece of a ritual pre-Christian (c. 350-50 BC) shield found in the River Thames near Battersea Bridge (hence “Battersea Shield”) is embossed with 27 swastikas in bronze and red enamel.[38] An Ogham stone found in Anglish, Co Kerry, Ireland (CIIC 141) was modified into an early Christian gravestone, and was decorated with a cross pattée and two swastikas.[39] The Book of Kells (ca. 800) contains swastika-shaped ornamentation. At the Northern edge of Ilkley Moor in West Yorkshire, there is a swastika-shaped pattern engraved in a stone known as the Swastika Stone.[40] The figure in the foreground of the picture is a 20th-century replica; the original carving can be seen a little farther away, at left of center.

Germanic Iron Age

The swastika shape (also called a fylfot) appears on various Germanic Migration Period and Viking Age artifacts, such as the 3rd century Værløse Fibula from Zealand, Denmark, the Gothic spearhead from Brest-Litovsk, today in Belarus, the 9th century Snoldelev Stone from Ramsø, Denmark, and numerous Migration Period bracteates drawn left-facing or right-facing.[41]

A comb with a swastika found in Nydam Mose, Denmark.
Swastika symbols on the Church of Christ Pantocrator (13th-14th century) in Nesebar.

The pagan Anglo-Saxon ship burial at Sutton Hoo, England, contained numerous items bearing the swastika, now housed in the collection of the Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.[42] The Swastika is clearly marked on a hilt and sword belt found at Bifrons in Kent, in a grave of about the 6th century.

Hilda Ellis Davidson theorized that the swastika symbol was associated with Thor, possibly representing his hammer Mjolnir - symbolic of thunder - and possibly being connected to the Bronze Age sun cross.[42] Davidson cites “many examples” of the swastika symbol from Anglo-Saxon graves of the pagan period, with particular prominence on cremation urns from the cemeteries of East Anglia.[42] Some of the swastikas on the items, on display at the Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, are depicted with such care and art that, according to Davidson, it must have possessed special significance as a funerary symbol.[42] The runic inscription on the 8th-century Sæbø sword has been taken as evidence of the swastika as a symbol of Thor in Norse paganism.

Illyrians

Swastika was wide spread among the Illyrians, symbolizing the Sun. The Sun cult was the main Illyrian cult, and the Sun was represented by a swastika in clockwise motion, and it stood for the movement of the Sun.[43]

Baltic

The swastika is one of the most common symbols used throughout Baltic art. In Latvian the symbol is known as either Ugunskrusts, the “Fire cross” (rotating counter-clockwise), or Pērkonkrusts, the “Thunder cross” (rotating clock-wise), and was mainly associated with Pērkons, the god of Thunder and justice. It was also occasionally related to the Sun, as well as Dievs (the god of creation), Laima (the goddess of destiny and fate). It was believed that the god of Thunder (Pērkons) was the only god which was feared by the devil. The swastika is featured on many distaffs, dowry chests, cloths and other artisanal items.

Slavic

Currently, Slavic neo-pagans and neo-Nazis frequently use the standard and eight-pointed (“kolovrat”) swastika. They believe that swastika and kolovrat are ancient Slavic pagan symbols.[44][45][46][47][48]

Sami

An object very much like a hammer or a double axe is depicted among the magical symbols on the drums of Sami shamans, used in their religious ceremonies before Christianity was established. The name of the Sami thunder god was Horagalles, thought to be derived from “Old Man Thor” (Þórr karl). Sometimes on the drums, a male figure with a hammer-like object in either hand is shown, and sometimes it is more like a cross with crooked ends, or a swastika.[42]

Medieval and early modern Europe

A ceiling painted with small swastikas in Grenoble Archaeological Museum

In Christianity, the swastika is used as a hooked version of the Christian Cross, the symbol of Christ’s victory over death. Some Christian churches built in the Romanesque and Gothic eras are decorated with swastikas, carrying over earlier Roman designs. Swastikas are prominently displayed in a mosaic in the St. Sophia church of Kiev, Ukraine dating from the 12th century. They also appear as a repeating ornamental motif on a tomb in the Basilica of St. Ambrose in Milan.

A ceiling painted in 1910 in the church of St Laurent in Grenoble has many swastikas. It can be visited today because the church became the archaeological museum of the city. A proposed direct link between it and a swastika floor mosaic in the Cathedral of Our Lady of Amiens, which was built on top of a pagan site at Amiens, France in the 13th century, is considered unlikely. The stole worn by a priest in the 1445 painting of the Seven Sacraments by Roger van der Weyden presents the swastika form simply as one way of depicting the cross. Swastikas also appear on the vestments on the effigy of Bishop William Edington (d. 1366) in Winchester Cathedral.

In the Polish First Republic the symbol of the swastika was also popular with the nobility. According to chronicles, the Rus’ prince Oleg, who in the 9th century attacked Constantinople, nailed his shield (which had a large red swastika painted on it) to the city’s gates.[46] Several noble houses, e.g. Boreyko, Borzym, and Radziechowski from Ruthenia, also had Swastikas as their coat of arms. The family reached its greatness in the 14th and 15th centuries and its crest can be seen in many heraldry books produced at that time. The Swastika was also a heraldic symbol, for example on the Boreyko coat of arms, used by noblemen in Poland and Ukraine. In the 19th century the swastika was one of the Russian empire’s symbols; it was even placed in coins as a background to the Russian eagle.[47][48]

Swastika pattern in a Venetian palace that likely follows a Roman pattern, at Palazzo Roncale, Rovigo

Early 20th-century Europe

The aviator Matilde Moisant (1878-1964) wearing a swastika medallion in 1912; the symbol was popular as a good luck charm with early aviators.

In the Western world, the symbol experienced a resurgence following the archaeological work in the late 19th century of Heinrich Schliemann, who discovered the symbol in the site of ancient Troy and associated it with the ancient migrations of Proto-Indo-Europeans, whose proto-language was not incidentally termed “Proto-Indo-Germanisch” by German language historians. He connected it with similar shapes found on ancient pots in Germany, and theorized that the swastika was a “significant religious symbol of our remote ancestors”, linking Germanic, Greek and Indo-Iranian cultures.[50][51] By the early 20th century, it was used worldwide and was regarded as a symbol of good luck and success.

The work of Schliemann soon became intertwined with the völkisch movements, for which the swastika was a symbol of the “Aryan race”, a concept that came to be equated by theorists such as Alfred Rosenberg with a Nordic master race originating in northern Europe. Since its adoption by the Nazi Party of Adolf Hitler, the swastika has been associated with Nazism, fascism, racism (white supremacy), the Axis powers in World War II, and the Holocaust in much of the West. The swastika remains a core symbol of Neo-Nazi groups, and is used regularly by activist groups.

Carlsberg’s Elephant Tower.

The Benedictine choir school at Lambach Abbey, Upper Austria, which Hitler attended for several months as a boy, had a swastika chiseled into the monastery portal and also the wall above the spring grotto in the courtyard by 1868. Their origin was the personal coat of arms of Abbot Theoderich Hagn of the monastery in Lambach, which bore a golden swastika with slanted points on a blue field.[52] The Lambach swastika is probably of Medieval origin.

Denmark

The Danish brewery company Carlsberg Group used the swastika as a logo[53] from the 19th Century until the middle of the 1930s when it was discontinued because of association with the Nazi Party in neighbouring Germany. However, the swastika carved on elephants at the entrance gates of the company’s headquarters in Copenhagen in 1901 can still be seen today.[54]

Ireland

The Swastika Laundry was a laundry founded in 1912, located on Shelbourne Road, Ballsbridge, a district of Dublin, Ireland. In the fifties Heinrich Böll came across a van belonging to the company while he was staying in Ireland, leading to some awkward moments before he could realize the company was older than Nazism and totally unrelated to it. The chimney of the boiler-house of the laundry still stands, but the laundry has been redeveloped.[55][56]

Finland
Folklore

In Finland the swastika was often used in traditional folk art products, as a decoration or magical symbol on textiles and wood. The swastika was also used by the Finnish Air Force until 1945, and is still used in air force flags.

The tursaansydän is used by scouts in some instances[57] and a student organization.[58] The village of Tursa uses the tursaansydän as a kind of a certificate of authenticity on products made there.[59] Traditional textiles are still being made with swastikas as parts of traditional ornaments.

The aircraft roundel and insignia of the Finnish Air force from 1918–1945
Swedish-origin swastika in military
Present-day flag (from 1958) and its pole of the Training Air Wing with three swastikas

The Finnish Air Force uses the swastika as an emblem, introduced in 1918. The type of swastika adopted by the air-force was the symbol of luck for the Swedish count Eric von Rosen, who donated one of its earliest aircraft; he later became a prominent figure in the Swedish nazi-movement.

The swastika was also used by the women’s paramilitary organization Lotta Svärd, which was banned in 1944 in accordance with the Moscow Armistice between Finland and the allied Soviet Union and Britain.

The President of Finland is the grand master of the Order of the White Rose. According to the protocol, the president shall wear the Grand Cross of the White Rose with collar on formal occasions. The original design of the collar, decorated with 9 swastikas, dates from 1918, and was designed by the artist Akseli Gallen-Kallela. The Grand Cross with the swastika collar has been awarded 41 times to foreign heads of state. To avoid misunderstandings, the swastika decorations were replaced by fir crosses at the decision of president Urho Kekkonen in 1963 after it became known that the President of France Charles De Gaulle was uncomfortable with the swastika collar.

Also a design by Gallen-Kallela from 1918, the Cross of Liberty has a swastika pattern in its arms. The Cross of Liberty is depicted in the upper left corner of the standard of the President of Finland.[60]

In December 2007, a silver replica of the WWII period Finnish air defence’s relief ring decorated with a swastika became available as a part of a charity campaign.[61]

The original war time idea was that the public swap their precious metal rings for the State air defence’s relief ring, made of iron.

Latvia

Latvia adopted the swastika, called the Ugunskrusts (“fire cross”), for its air force in 1918/1919 and continued its use until 1940. The cross itself was maroon on a white background, mirroring the colors of the Latvian flag. Earlier versions pointed counter-clockwise, while later versions pointed clock-wise and eliminated the white background.[62][63]

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Fylfot rock carving
4000 BCE. Sweden

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Fylfot on picture stone
8th Century CE. Gotland, Sweden image
Bronze Fylfot brooch
5th Century CE, Denmark

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Fylfot on Funeral Urn
5th Century CE, England image
Silver Visigothic brooch with Fylfot
6th Century CE, Serbia

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Gold Bracatte with Fylfot
5th Century CE. Nebenstedt, Germany image
Gold Fylfot Rune Bracatte
6th Century CE, Scandinavia

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Fylfot on Picture Stone
8th Century CE. Gotland, Sweden

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Rock carving of Fylfot
6th Century CE. England image
the Redding Comb with Fylfot
3rd Century CE, Scandinavia

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Gold Bracatte with Fylfot
4th Century CE. Skaane, Sweden image
Bronze Fylfot Brooch with Serpants
5th Century CE, Germany

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Gold Fylfot brooch
5th Century CE, Denmark image
Gold Bracatte with Fylfot and Horse rider
5th Century CE, Scandinavia

image
Fylfot on funeral urn
4th Century CE, Germany image
Gothic Silver Eagle Brooch with Garnet inlay
4th Century CE, Romania

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Illustration of Fylfots on fragment of gold plated oranament
7th Century CE. Sorunda, Sweden

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Bronze Merovigian Fylfot Brooch with silver inlay
6th Century CE, France image
Fylfot Braccatte depicting a Wolf and the Sunrider
4th Century CE. Skaane, Sweden

image
Silver Fylfot Dragon disk brooch
8th Century CE, England image
Viking Age Axe Pendant with Fylfot motif
8th Century CE, Scandinavia

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Merovigian sword with Fylfot hilt motif
5th Century CE. Bavaria, Germany image
Picture stone depicting Fylfot
7th Century CE. Gotland, Sweden

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Fylfot on Gold Bracaette
4th Century CE. Raunes, Sweden image
Germanic Spear inscribed with Fylfot
1st Century CE, Germany

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Fylfot Burial Urn
1st Century CE, Germany

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Fylfots on funeral Urn
5th Century CE. Norfolk, England image
Viking Age Fylfot Brooch in the Borre style
10th Century CE, Scandinavia

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Fylfot Detail from the Royal Oseberg Tapestry
8th Century CE. Oseberg, Norway image
Anglo Saxon Fylfot Brooch
6th Century CE. Norfolk, England

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Gold Bracaette with Fylfot
4th Century CE, Danemark image
Gilded Saxon Fylfot disc brooch
5th Century CE, England

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Saxon Urn with Fylfots
7th Century CE, England

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Gold Fylfot Bracatte
3rd Century CE. Lyngby Denmark image
Bronze Saxon Fylfot brooch
5th Century CE, England

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Fylfot Decoration on Saxon brooch
5th Century CE, England image
Gold Braccattte with Fylfot
4th Century CE. Fyn, Denmark

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Anglo Saxon Fylfot mount
6th Century CE, England image
Gold Braccatte with Fylfot
5th Century CE, Austria

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Fylfot embelished on bucket handle
9th Century CE, Norway image
Fylfot carved on Runestone
7th Century CE. Snoldelev, Denmark

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Gold Braccatte with Fylfot
5th Century CE, Germany image
Gold Braccatte with Fylfot and hunter
4th Century CE. Taunder, Denmark.

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Silver horse Fylfot brooch
7th Century, Denmark. image
Fylfot Rock carvings
4th Century CE, Scandinavia

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Silver Gothic Fylfot eagle brooch
4th Century CE, Balkans image
Funeral Urn Fragment with circular fylfot
2nd Century CE, Germany

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Carving of Fylfots, Odin and his ravens
11th Century CE, England

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Fylfot brooch
5th Century CE, Germany image
Alemmanic Fylfot brooch
7th Century CE, Germany

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Fylfot motif on weight from Set
7th Century CE. Hemlingby, Sweden image
Fylfot Bracatte depicting Frigga & fylfot
6th Century CE. Erfurt, Germany

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Fylfot pendants
3rd Century CE, Germany image
Fylfot incribed on bottom of ritual Bowl
2nd Century CE, Germany

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Fylfot depicted on warriors helmet
6th Century CE. Sutton Hoo, England image
Fylfot disk brooch
7th Century CE, Germany

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Fylfot depicted on Funeral Urn
3rd Century CE, Germany image
Fylfot brooch
6th Century CE, France

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Fylfot depicted on Funeral Urn
6th Century CE, Germany image
Fylfot motif on Brooch terminals
8th Century CE, Scandinavia

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Fylfot brooch
6th Century CE, France image
Chalice with Fylfot on bottom
2nd Century CE, Germany

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Fylfot carved on stone monument
9th Century CE, Ilse of Man image
Fylfot brooch
7th Century CE, Germany

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Fylfot Urn
1st Century CE, Germany

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Spear with Fylfot and other magical symbols
3rd Century CE, Germany image
Viking Sword with Silver inlay of Fylfots
9th Century CE, Scandinavia

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Fylfot pendant
6th Century CE, Germany image
Fylfot brooch
7th Century CE, Germany

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Fylfot on Gold Bracatte Depicting Frigga
4th Century CE. Erfurt, Germany image
Fylfot disk brooch
6th Century CE. Birkshire, England

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Fylfots on Early Anglo-Saxon Urn
5th Century CE. Sancton, England image
Fylfot Inscribed on Anglo Saxon Sword Hilt
5th Century CE. Kent, England

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Gold Fylfot braceatte
5th Century CE, Scandinavia

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Illustraition of Royal Oseberg Tapestry depicting 2 Fylfots
8th Century CE. Oseberg, Norway

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Detail of Gothic Fylfot on staircase
St. Stephen’s Cathedral Austria 1514

"Until Nazis it had no dark meaning behind it”.

It never had a dark meaning behind it. It still doesn’t.

Exactly. I’m so glad that there are other people here on Tumblr who get it.

Reblogging for examples

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